In 1877, Joseph Monier, a French gardener, suggested that concrete reinforced with steel could be used for making sleepers for railway track.Monier designed a sleeper and obtained a patent for it, but it was not successful. Though steel is harder and stronger than iron. Practice Test: Question Set - 02 1. What’s more, producing wood sleepers need a lot of high quality wood resource and the cost is very high. Practice Test: Question Set - 01 1. Moreover, steel is a good conductor of heat, ignites materials in contact and often causes fires, which rapidly spread to other sections of a building. The manufacturing of sleepers is a simple process. Steel is world’s most important engineering and construction material. Disadvantage of wooden sleeper It is easy to be affected by humidity. Cast Iron Sleepers . But the inventions of … 03. Due to a . It is liable to corrosion. This kind of new material is environmentally friendly, recyclable and comes from a wide range of sources. For a Broad Gauge route with (M + 7) sleeper density, number of sleepers per rail length is (A) 18 (B) 19 (C) 20 Iron is the base of steel. High Maintenance & Capital Cost. Gib and cotters for connecting pot sleepers are so casted that by interchanging them gauge is slackened by, Plate sleepers consist of a plate of dimensions. Plastic railway sleeper. The proportion of carbon is the main influencing factor for the weight. 1234567891011121314151617181920Next, © 2012-2021 by GeekMCQ™ Technologies. Practice Test: Question Set - 02 1. Sleepers - Types….. Steel sleepers Disadvantages Liable for corrosion. When replacing wooden sleepers, they can easily be installed into the existing ballast – the layer of crushed stone which forms the track bed – unlike concrete sleepers, which require a new layer of ballast. fences and ornaments for homes and businesses. 5. Steel sleepers are formed from pressed steel and are trough-shaped in section. 07. Practice Test: Question Set - 01 1. For preventing such a problem expensive application of paints is required frequently. 70. Disadvantages of steel sleeper. Cracks at rail seats develop during the service. They are recyclable hence possess good scrap value. Disadvantages of Structural Steel Structures. There is no theoretical limit to how long a welded rail can be. Steel structures are susceptible to different environmental conditions. Plastic railway sleeper, also called composite sleeper, mainly refers to the railway sleeper is made of the plastic composite. It is difficult to maintain gauge in case of wooden sleepers; Scrap value is negligible; Their useful life is short about 12 to 15 years. The utility of timber sleepers has not diminished due to the passage of time. Two-block concrete sleepers for use in MG yards have recently been developed. These composite sleepers have the same damping characteristics as timber sleepers, which makes them suitable for 1:1 replacement of wood. The total effective area of the pot sleepers is, The total effective area of the pot sleepers is equal to the effective bearing area of a. The main areas of creosote treated wood are for railway sleepers, ... sleeper. concrete and steel sleepers is also increasing. – Service life of wooden sleeper is shorter (10-30 years). They also have good life span. Steel sleepers have the following main advantages/disadvantages over wooden sleepers. When steel structures are exposed to severe or aggressive weather conditions, it may get corroded due to the action of steel with atmospheric oxygen or aggressive environment. We see them when shivering on the platform edge in morning peak. Steel is an alloy of iron. It can be used only for rails for which it is manufactured 4. Timber sleepers are workable, easy to handle, easy to replace and needs no complicated assembly equipment. These sleepers use to prevent the cantilever action between the two supports of the sleeper joints. The main components of this recycled railway sleepers include long glass fiber and polyurethane resin. There are some properties in which concrete structures are preferred over steel. In Europe and other parts of the world – where the houses are hundreds of years old – homeowners are not interested in putting on a roof that they will have to replace in 20 years or less. They can be fitted with all types of railway track. 01. Service life of wooden sleeper is shorter. 2. Steel Sleepers. This requires extra cost and special care. Steel is widely used in different sectors. The sleepers can be classified into five main categories, generally depending upon the materials of construction: Wooden sleepers; Steel sleepers ; Cast Iron Sleepers; R.C.C sleepers; Prestressed Concrete Sleepers; Wooden Sleepers. Advantages of Steel Sleepers. Answer: Option A. – Creosote treated sleepers can be hard to recycle, making them more expensive. 04. Structural steel is the most recycled material on our planet – today’s structural steel is made of 88% recycled product, is fully recyclable in the future and can be reused without further processing. Correct Answer. Some Examples of recycling materials are as follows. Additionally, because it can’t take the same stress as steel, you will have to use more of it; meaning more costs. Practice Test: Question Set - 01 1. Wooden sleepers are made of wooden elements, especially timber. Previous Railway Sleepers - MCQ 1. Barring out the rails and lifting the sleeper out complete. It contains up to 2.1% carbon which may vary based on the requirement. The service life of steel sleepers is governed by fatigue that is not apparent until the sleeper has started to fail. If derailment is happened, they damaged very badly and not suitable for re using. Disadvantages of Wooden Sleepers – Can be affected by humidity. Fig. Steel Sleepers in the Rail Industry – they are still made, and have quite a history . 0. chris 172 Posts: 403. Two alternative types of steel sleepers have been designed for each rail section as per the following details. This video is unavailable. Advantages (a) Less corrosion The typical steel column occupies 75% less floor space than an equivalent concrete column. New sleepers are tanalised and should last for many years. In Queensland, fungal decay is the most Having so many advantages, wood sleeper is the main type of rail sleepers. It possesses high tensile strength, super flexibility, and low cost. Answer: Option B More Expensive Than Steel. Answer: Option B The life of timber sleepers depends upon their ability to resist a) Wearb) Decayc) Attack by vermind) All the above View Answer Disadvantages of Steel Sleepers. steel sleepers have mechanical properties incompatible with the existing timber sleepers. Asphalt shingles are very popular, but just in North America mostly. The steel trough sleeper essentially consists of a rolled steel plate of about 2 mm thickness pressed into a suitable trough shape and the rail seat canted to 1 in 20. 1. Steel Sleepers. 102. The overall cost of steel sleepers is more than that of timber sleepers. There are three ways of removing and replacing a steel sleeper. These sleepers use to prevent the cantilever action between the two supports of the sleeper joints. Its scrap value is very good Disadvantages of Steel Sleepers 1. concrete sleepers and hardwood timber sleepers treated with preservative are the main alternative materials (1 1 In Australia, the ready availability of relatively durable hardwood has tended to inhibit technological development of other sleeper materials. The disadvantages of metal sleepers are as follows, More ballast requires for metal sleepers Due to the increasing shortage of timber in the country and other economic factors have led to the use of steel and concrete sleepers on railways. Splitting of timber at the ends is also common as railway sleepers support very large transverse shear loadings [26]. Welding Process. Our steel sleepers are the most advanced in the world providing lower installation and maintenance costs and more efficient logistics. Newmont Ahafo Development Foundation. The main disadvantage in using timber for sleepers is their sus-ceptibility to mechanical and biological degradation leading to fail-ure [17]. Cast Iron Railway Sleepers They are further divided into two categories: 1. Steel is the most preferred metal for the construction of large structures such as bridges, single storey industrial buildings, and residential buildings.There are three main types of steel construction – conventional steel fabrication, bolted steel structure construction and light gauge steel structure construction. softwood and steel sleepers is declining rapidly, while. Steel sleepers are different to timber and concrete sleepers, mainly because they are relatively light in comparison to their rigidity. Steel sleepers can … Note: Interstate Lines steel sleepers are limited to a minimum of 300 m radius curves. Table 1 Steel sleepers have the following main advantages/disadvantages over wooden sleepers. Main disadvantage of steel sleepers, is: It gets rusted quickly Its lugs sometimes get broken Therefore, in this thesis, it will not be presented in detail, only the pros and cons of steel sleepers are discussed below. Disadvantages. Fittings required are greater in number & difficult to maintain and inspection. Which of the following is a cast iron sleeper? Steel sleepers seem more of a rarity, but they have been around for a long time. Hence they are universally used. OneSteel Whyalla Steelworks manufacture steel sleepers under the Trak-Lok brand. Producing one ton of steel requires 40% of the energy. Contact us: info@geekmcq.com, The main disadvantage of steel sleepers is, The sleepers in the form of two bowls placed under each rail and connected together by a tie - bar, are known as. Their susceptibility to mechanical and biological degradation leading to failure is their major disadvantage. They are not suitable for all types of ballast which is provided as bed for sleepers. The main disadvantage of steel sleepers is: A. that they get rusted very quickly: B. that their lugs sometimes get cracked: C. that their lugs sometimes get broken: D. all of these View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum. ... and at the ends of the sleepers, to prevent the sleepers from moving. They are molded in trough shape and placed on ballast in inversed trough shape. The main advantage of the timber is their adaptability as it can be fitted with all types of railway track. Answer: Option A Given that wood has been used for the better part of two centuries to make railway sleepers, it is surprising that wooden sleepers still comprise the majority of the railway sleeper market. 01. 2. Rail wood sleeper advantages Rail Track Structure. sleepers have some disadvantages, have not yet been widely adopted, and are still under investigation. 08. Our wide range of steel sleepers is designed to cater for all types of application, from metre gauge railways to … The rail track structure is composed of several main parts, which are steel rails, rail sleepers, track beds, and rail fastening parts.It is defined that sleeper is a device that bears the pressure of the rails and transfers it to the track bed evenly. Steel is one of the most widely used, from the list of materials. Every material has some benefits as well as flaws. Answer: Option B for fixing of rails as per the customer’s requirements. Watch Queue Queue. Oak 53% Pine 20% Beech 32% Wooden Sleepers 10-30 years SERVICE LIFE. Higher maintenance cost. Benefits. The combination of bearing-plate and ballast effects and the 144 fracture of timber sleepers caused by stresses may advance their mechanical failure (Qiao et al., 145 1998). Like the others, it has advantageous and disadvantageous. Rail way sleepers can be made by either extrusion or injection moulding technologies. 02. 2.1. It is this commitment that enables the Trak-Lok® range of steel sleepers to be what we believe is the most versatile and technically advanced available today. steel sleepers in 80lb… A disadvantage of traditional track structures is the heavy demand ... Bonded main line 6-bolt rail joint on a segment of 155 lb/yd (76.9 kg/m) rail. The advantage of steel sleeper is: Easy to manufacture and install But the main disadvantages are: Low transverse resistance A joint sleeper of cast iron known as rail Free Duplex sleepers has been use as a rail joints in conjunction with it. Around the 'top of the grade', the highest point on our line, are a couple of steel sleepers. disadvantages of metals. Structural steel structures can withstand external pressures such as earthquakes, thunderstorms, and cyclones. Anchors are more common for wooden sleepers, whereas most concrete or steel sleepers are fastened to the rail by special clips that resist longitudinal movement of the rail. Here, we weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of the materials on offer. Both main types of failure of timber sleepers are shown in … Not suitable for track circuiting; It can be used only for rails for which it is manufactured; Cracks at rail seats develop during the service. Disadvantages of Steel Structures. Steel Sleepers. About 27% of the track on Indian Railways is laid on steel sleepers (Fig. Another significant disadvantage of timber sleepers is fungal decay. A disadvantage of traditional track ... to prevent the sleepers from moving. The main advantage of the timber is their adaptability as it can be tted with all types railway track. Hence, steel structures may require additional fireproofing treatment. Cast Iron Railway Sleepers. History. This is the preferred method if there are a number of sleepers to change. 142 However, one of the main disadvantages of timber sleeper is their susceptibility to 143 mechanical degradation and moisture. 13. 09. Our Steel Sleepers are the result of over 30 years of research and development. 15. The following types of Steel Sleepers are as follows, Key Type These sleepers can be supplied with or without cant, with holes or with Welded arrangement of Base plates, shoulders etc. Most of the tracks lays with the metal sleepers. The fastenings used are steel clips and a spring washer with screw fitted to a polythene dowel. An untreated oak sleeper has a life span of roughly 10 years. Greatly Affordable; While working on a low budget, mild carbon steel proves to be the best. Timber Timber sleepers have a long history of effective and reliable per-formance in the railway environment [25]. 1.3 Timbers Timber sleepers have been widely used during recent decades. The increasing shortage of timber in the country and other economical factors are mainly responsible for the use of steel sleepers in India. The main advantages and disadvantages of CI sleepers over steel trough sleepers are the following. Steel sleepers are lightweight, dimensionally more accurate than wooden or concrete and regarded as an effective technical solution for modern rail networks. In an application, the bearing is subjected to radial as well as axial loads. 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