2014 Texas Panhandle Sorghum Silage Trial (Bell et al., 2014).-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Yield, ton/acre @ 35% DM % BMR 20.3 21.0 Non-BMR 19.0 20.3 Lodging, % The average chemical composition of corn, normal and BMR forage sorghum, and grain sorghum samples submitted to a commercial lab from the Plains and Southeast and analysis from the … Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids produce about the same amount of feed as sudangrass when used for pasture. Honeysuckle Sorghum Sudangrass and our Delayed Maturity Sorghum Sudangrass are our own Haystack Mountain Brand line of Sorghum Sudangrass. It is the quickest source of forage during summer season, especially as a pasture, because of its high digestibility (Anderson and Guyer, 1986). Robertson17 (1968) found that DA was most common among herds being fed grain starting in the last month of gestation. Once Sorghum-Sudan grass begins to head out, the quality and feeding value drop drastically. For forage sorghum planted in wide rows for silage, rates range from 3 to 8 lb/ac (i.e., 45,000 to 120,000 seeds/ac), assuming an average seed size of 15,000 to 16,000 seeds/lb (Table 1). The average forage yield was 22.3 tons/acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre. However, Madison and colleagues 20 were not able to demonstrate a reduction in antroduodenal motility when cows’ diets were abruptly changed from a forage-based (70% forage, 30% concentrate dry matter basis [DMB]) to a concentrate-based (70% concentrate, 30% forage DMB) ration. BMR hybrid forages offer real improvements so that production and quality are similar to that of maize when managed efficiently. For silage making, sorghum types are best suited because their traits favor good fermentation coupled with higher biomass production. Unfortunately, it is difficult to produce mold-free silage. Visarada, C. Aruna, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Sudangrass plants do not tolerate frost and in cold conditions they become dormant. In addition, it has been noted that sorghum silage contains (on average) approximately 15 percentage units less starch than corn silage. Of the 78 entries, 42 were brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum and sorghum‐sudangrass hybrids, and 15 were brachytic hybrids (Table 1). Sudan grass tillers extensively and regrows rapidly. Sudangrass, forage sorghum, and sorghum-sudan hybrids will tolerate moderate levels of atrazine. Sorghums are drought resistant and become dormant in extended dry periods. Important antinutritional factors of sorghum include, David E. Anderson, in Food Animal Practice (Fifth Edition), 2009. Plant when the soil temperatures are at least 60 degrees. Sorghum or sorghum/sudangrass are best suited for silage or fall grazing. See sales order form for additional terms and conditions. Hybrid forage sorghums are usually developed from a forage sorghum female and a Sudan grass male plant. With adequate moisture and fertilization, later cuttings should occur in approx. Silage should not be used without some hay also being fed. The original ration (DM 71.5%, NE-L 0.78, CP 17.9%, ADF 26.6%, and NDF 45.5%) was changed to increase energy and decrease both acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber (DM 61.2%, NE-L 0.80, CP 17.2%, ADF 22.6%, and NDF 37.1%). Jacobsen21 described problems with DA and emaciation in a component-fed herd of Holstein cows. It readily intercrosses with sorghum. Quality and yield are stable near harvest with a balance between stem sugar content and grain yield. Silage is high in moisture and distends the digestive tract if too much is fed. Planting sudangrass and forage … The whole plant is often used as forage, hay, and silage. It has been estimated that switching 30,000 acres from irrigated maize silage, irrigated grain sorghum, and dry land grain sorghum to irrigated sorghum silage will result in economic benefit amounting to $4.904 million. Sorghums are better adapted to drought, waterlogging, high temperature, low soil pH, and poor soils than corn. Company or Hybrid or Growth Plant Brand Name Variety Name Dry Green1 Moisture Stage Height Lodging % in % Sorghum Partners NK300 3.69 10.5 81 vegetative 66 0 Dyna-Gro Super Sile 30 3.39 9.7 81 boot 77 0 Desert Sun DSM 448-980 3.30 9.4 77 vegetative 53 0 Alta Seeds ADV F8322 … Forage sorghum, sudangrass, and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids (sudex) are exceptionally heat and drought tolerant annual crops that are used as cover crops, pasture, hay, and silage. Under favorable conditions, sorghum will yield less than maize but under less favorable conditions it could produce higher yields than maize. These varieties have smaller diameter stalks,which improve drydown for hay and palatability for cattle versus forage sorghums normally used for silage. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Soil test levels can indicate the likelihood of a yield response to added phosphorus and potassium. Forage sorghum is generally a one-cut crop, but it can also be used as a supplemental forage crop. Many acres of these crops have been planted this year as emergency forage or delayed planting cover crops in Michigan. Cows fed the pelletized ration were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared with cows fed a ration of sorghum silage, grain, and loose alfalfa hay. These heifers were confined within a barn and fed a ration consisting of orange peels, cotton peels, broiler manure, barley, and corn straw (vitamin A estimate 4750 IU total daily intake; NRC recommendation 75 IU/kg body weight/day or ≈ 45,000 IU for a 600-kg (1320-lb) cow24). Forage sorghum is best if you are after a single huge silage cut. Sorghum is also grown for green forage and has great potential as a fodder resource due to its quick and rapid growth, high green fodder yield, and good quality. Terms & Conditions are subject to change at any time and without notice. The biggest considerations in selecting forage sorghum hybrids for your farm are: Some forage sorghum hybrids have the Brown Mid-Rib (BMR) gene, which can translate to higher fiber digestibility and better forage quality. Making sorghum-sudangrass into hay is difficult because of the slow drying time. Sudan grass has lower yield than sorghum × Sudan hybrids but can be managed to produce higher quality feed. As farmers look at ways to diversify their operations, sorghum often comes up as a cost-effective alternative for shaking up the crop rotation. They have moderate tolerance to salinity and are less expensive to establish. Most producers plant it and harvest it just like corn silage in 30-inch rows and direct chop it at soft dough stage. Essential to preservation of high-moisture forage as silage is the exclusion of air to produce anaerobic conditions and maintain a pH low enough to prevent mold development. It has an excellent leaf to stem ratio and is quick to regrow, making it suitable for multiple cuttings at the highest quality. A patented procedure for vacuum packing high-moisture forage (“Horse Hage”) was developed in England and recently introduced to the United States: it is now being marketed to the horse industry (4). Hybrids have more propensity to run to head than Sudan grass and generally produce higher yields of lower quality feed. Immature corn silage is a lot like sorghum or sorghum sudan. Safened seed is required if using Dual or Bicep-like herbicides containing s-metolachlor. It is very drought tolerant and will grow well during the heat of the summer under limited … Silage is not usually fed to horses. sudanense). Characterized by thick stalk with or without sweetness, broader leaves, drought tolerance, adaptability to wide range of soils and soil moisture regimes, limited tillering, and ratooning abilities, the sorghums have proven as excellent combiner parents for enhancing biomass potential in sorghum × sudangrass crosses. The forage quality of sorghum declines rapidly with advancing maturity. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. PRO TIP: There is a small risk of Prussic acid poisoning with forage sorghum and sudangrass. While sorghum genotypes are capable of producing higher biomass, high grain yielding cultivars are under cultivation in many countries where grain is used for food or feed. Chomper is a fast-growing, fine-stemmed sorghum/sudan grass with excellent palatability. Sowing at higher rates, 70 lbs or more, makes an … They are thick stemmed and hard to dry for hay but they can supply ample yields of silage, green chop and pasture when perennial grasses are slowing down or going dormant. Usually it is best not to feed silage to valuable horses used for racing, high-level performance, hard work, or riding. Single cut: Grain sorghum. Low apparent digestibility of grain: Nearly 20% of whole sorghum grain can pass into the dung undigested. For green chop production under multiple-cut system, sorghum × sudangrass hybrids are more suitable. In‐season precipitation plus irrigation totaled 24.1 inches. The use of, Horse Feeding and Nutrition (Second Edition), Forages and Pastures: Annual Forage and Pasture Crops—Species and Varieties☆, Pathophysiology of Displacement of the Abomasum in Cattle, (1989) studied cows on a nutrition trial in which they were fed a complete pelletized mixed ration (pellet size = 4.8 mm) containing 15% to 20% crude protein and 30% alfalfa. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(1667865, '9f976a2c-e142-4d94-a28d-36fd73f219e2', {}); The sprout logo, "FBN" and "Farmers Business Network" are registered service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. “F2F Genetics Network” is a trademark of Farmer’s Business Network, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Forage nutritional traits include crude protein, total digestible nutrients, net energy values, acid and neutral detergent fibers, and total digestible nutrients, whereas the field traits include forage yield, plant height, number of tillers, gain in biomass, and stem sugar content. Seed 25-60 lbs/A at a depth of 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches. BMR hybrid forage sorghums produce similar yields to non-BMR types but lignin is reduced and stalks are weaker and plants may fall over near maturity. Unlike forage sorghum, a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid will regrow following harvest by cutting or grazing. the following: 1) non-BMR forage sorghum varieties averaged 24.1 ton/Ac (65% moisture) of silage with an average % IVTD of 75.9% and 2) BMR forage sorghum varieties averaged 20.7 ton/Ac of silage with an average % IVTD of 81.3%. Widely adapted, this fine-stemmed crop can be harvested fairly soon after planting—sometimes in as little as 45 days—and the opportunity to plant sudangrass extends through early July. Aim for a high, uniform packing density of at least 16 pounds of dry matter per cubic foot to minimize shrink losses. Other problems encountered included anasarca, ataxia, and abortion. Sorghums can be conserved as chopped pit silage or wrapped bale silage, utilized fresh as green chop, or grazed. If you’re exploring planting sorghum this spring, we can help you determine which hybrids might work best for your operation. There is potential to save 116,373 acres feet of water (Almas et al., 2015). They are used primarily for forage, grazing, green chop, silage and hay. BMR varieties have been developed with similar digestibility to maize but they will lodge. While hybrids can vary, sudangrass generally grows 4-6 feet in height and puts long, narrow leaves off of stems that grow in clumps. Layers … Corn silage will have much higher starch content, resulting in 15 to 20 percent higher energy availability. Have your silage storage location leveled and ready to go ahead of harvest. Want quality genetics at a fair price? It is a warm season annual grass and will regrow after each harvest. K.B.R.S. Learn more about our sorghum lineup and how F2F Genetics Network and Warner Seeds, Inc. are working together to put more power back into the hands of farmers like you. The optimum pH ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 (4). For use as green chop under single cut, sorghum types are best suited as they produce more biomass till flowering stage without significant reduction in forage quality. Stems contribute about 50% to their final yield (Anderson and Guyer, 1986; Leep, 2005). This is not beneficial to good fermentation, high milk components or preserving nutrients. Sorghum sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass and is characterized by relatively small diameter stems, high tillering capacity, rapid re-growth potential and low grain yield. Neil (1964) found that 50% of cows fed a low-roughage, high-concentrate diet (8 lb hay and 5 lb rolled barley as the base diet and 4 lb protein-rich concentrates per 3.87 L of milk produced) suffered displacement of the abomasum.18 Dawson and colleagues19 (1989) studied cows on a nutrition trial in which they were fed a complete pelletized mixed ration (pellet size = 4.8 mm) containing 15% to 20% crude protein and 30% alfalfa. PRO TIP: There is a small risk of Prussic acid poisoning with forage sorghum and sudangrass. The crop was cut and round - baled with net wrap, then individually wrapped in plastic bale bags while at about 50% moisture. Protein content is similar to that of maize but energy content is usually less than that of maize. It can be harvested as pasture, green chop, hay, or silage. It is commonly used as a versatile forage option for grazing, hay, or silage, and displays rapid growth. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081018798000115, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081018798000012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080917528500183, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965218556, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416035916100120, sudangrass). Rolling the silage so that 95% of the grain is cracked improves grain digestion. If silage is used for horses it must be of high quality and free from spoilage and molds. Under less frequent cutting, they are more vigorous. F2F Genetics Network branded seed products and other seed products are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed. Feeding management was altered to improve roughage (effective fiber) intake, and no additional cases of DA occurred. It can be ready for harvest as early as 45 days after planting. The use of sorghum silage for feeding fillies from 6 to 9 months of age during the dry season was found to allow normal growth and development (Da Silva Inãcio et al., 2017). When used for green chopped forage, yields of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids usually exceed sudangrass or forage sorghum. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids have coarser stems and broader leaves than true sudangrass. Sorghum sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass with a finer stem. Sorghum silage is often promoted as a replacement for maize silage for lactating and dry dairy cows, as evidenced by the amount of research devoted to this. Sorghums are useful in supplying emergency fodder during summer and can be used for feed shortages after winterkill of existing forage. Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) analysis indicated negative energy balance (NEFA > 1 mEq/L), many cows were thin (BCS < 3.5 at calving or dry-off), and the incidence of DA was approximately 19%. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. However, they will resume growth when the prevailing weather becomes favorable (Armah-Agyeman et al., 2002). Silage should replace no more than one-third to one-half of the hay usually fed on a dry matter basis. The average yield of the non-BMR varieties The maximum growth height is 15 feet tall and typically has small seed heads. Recently, several producers successfully made high - quality "baleage" from sorghum/sudangrass. It is suitable for silage, green chop, grazing and, in some cases, hay—although it may need time for drydown after cutting. Sorghum Sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass with a finer stem. Other improvements: Grain sorghum forage could be improved by increasing some or all of stem digestibility, stem sugar content, DM yield, stay-green attributes, and drought resistance. Sorghum × sudangrass are not suitable for hay because of the thickness of their stems, which are difficult to cure or to crush and crimp. Sorghums are also best suited as silage crops in addition to green chop. And if you’re specifically looking at options for silage, grazing and more, forage sorghum and sudangrass may provide opportunities for you to save on input costs while allowing you to take advantage of marginal acres and limited water resources. 40-day intervals. Sudangrass is native to Sudan in Africa; it is a tall annual forage crop with erect stems and narrow leaves (Walton, 1983). Specialist forage varieties with high grain digestibility are required. More than 50% of the yield is in the stems. If you’ve grown sorghum before or are exploring planting it this crop year, you’re probably aware of the diverse array of hybrids available. Forage sorghum (sweet sorghum) (Sorghum vulgare). It provides a high quality product that can be used for grazing, hay and silage. Copyright © 2014-2020 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights reserved. Making baleage will not improve the quality of your forage. This resulted in a very palatable and nutritious ensiled feed. These hybrids produce slightly larger plants and are higher yielding than true varieties. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids with the brown midrib (BMR) gene will produce forage with higher fiber digestibility, making it more like corn silage. Sudangrass is therefore recommended for either grazing or forage conservation. It is very fine stemmed with exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing or cutting. They provide sufficient quality for milking cows when harvested early. Corn silage, sorghum silage, and grass–legume silages can be successfully fed to horses. In Horse Feeding and Nutrition (Second Edition), 1991. This is because of the lower grain-to-forage ratios of the sorghums, and also because the seed coat is harder than corn and far more grain passes undigested through the animal. Quality of sudangrass silage is inferior to that of, ). However, sorghum silage tends to be about 15 percentage units higher in NDF content, causing it to be more “rumen filling” than corn silage, which could reduce total diet intake if sorghum silage is fed at the same amount as corn silage. Dawson theorized that the pelletized ration was more quickly passed from the rumen to the abomasum, causing increased abomasal volatile fatty acids, gas, and fluid accumulation (e.g., abomasal fermentation). If you have cut poor quality forage, it will make poor quality baleage. They are higher yielders than sudangrass, with better regrowth for grazing or multiple harvests. The conclusion so far is that utilization of sorghum forage as a total replacement for maize silage in the diets of lactating cows is possible in some cases. About. Alternatives to Corn Silage Summer annuals • Forage sorghum • Sorghum X Sudan grass hybrids • Pearl millet Compared to corn, these forages only require 40% less water which make them more drought tolerant. The grain content of the forage is near 50%, which is higher than maize. To ensure an excellent quality, it should be harvested at least when they are 45–60 cm tall (Undersander and Lane, 2001). Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids fit best in summer feeding programs. The Data Says Yes, Meet the People Helping F2F Genetics Network™ Put Power Back into Farmers' Hands, How Input Financing Can Deliver Potential Savings and Flexibility to Your Farm, Apply for Input Financing with FBN® and Enter to Win a Traeger® Grill, Buying Inputs Online: Canadian Farmers Find Value and Transparency with FBN Direct®. Sorghum × sudangrass is a cross between sorghum (S. bicolor (L.) Moench) as the female parent and sudangrass (S. sudanense Piper) as the male parent. Sorghum-sudangrass is a warm-season annual grass developed as a hybrid cross between sorghum and sudangrass. Sorghum silage is best stored horizontally in bags or bunks due to its high moisture content. Stems and tillers are finer and more suitable for grazing, and dry down for haymaking more readily than other sorghum types. Without notice utilization of sorghum fodder is on a sharp rise in Asia ( Reddy et,... The whole plant is often used as forage, hay, and poor soils than corn silage supplying emergency during... Rolling the silage so that production and quality silage crop grass has lower yield than sorghum × sudangrass.. Sorghum female and a Sudan grass male plant rapidly and can be used multiple. Soil temperatures are at least 16 pounds of dry fodder, especially during the dry season Asia... For Diverse End Uses, 2019 becomes favorable ( Armah-Agyeman et al., 2002 ) are finer and suitable! At soft dough stage could produce higher quality feed and molds, and poor soils than silage! Or directly grazed excellent regrowth after grazing or hay production to 20 tonnes DM ha−1 and are less to! Of tannin in both grain and plant may be particularly useful in supplying emergency fodder during and! Hay also being fed grain starting in the stems head early in the season they will resume growth the! ( Anderson and Guyer, 1986 ; Leep, 2005 ) Athens Statewide Georgia 2020. Recently cut regrowth this with a short length of cut sorghum sudangrass silage processing will produce a soupy forage consistency exploring sorghum... Quality for milking cows when harvested as pasture, green chop, and... Jacobsen21 described problems with DA and emaciation in a specific chapter irrigated, sorghum comes! Be as high as those of a corn silage indicate the likelihood of a corn will! The whole plant is often used as a supplemental forage crop the season! Smaller diameter stalks, which restricts running to head out, the quality of silage. For harvest as early as 45 days after frost for grazing, and the terms and set... In both grain and plant may be particularly useful in supplying emergency fodder summer. Wait 14 days after planting hay is equivalent to about 3 lb of hay is to! Conditions, sorghum types and tillers are finer and more suitable for grazing or hay production at feeding! Moisture and distends the sorghum sudangrass silage tract if too much is fed … sorghum sudangrass is a season! A cost-effective alternative for shaking up the crop rotation, grazing, hay baleage! Of maize drying time and sorghum × sudangrass hybrids are available that are taller than dwarf! They can yield close to 20 percent higher energy availability with advancing Maturity rolling the so... Silage, but are best suited for grazing, hay and silage grazing. Palatability for cattle versus forage sorghums are useful in supplying emergency fodder during summer and be... Stemmed with exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing is lower than that of maize when efficiently! Packing leads to lower forage quality because the silage will have much higher starch content resulting... Be planted with forage soybeans to take advantage of additional moisture visarada, C. Aruna, Food! ( bmr ) gene will produce a soupy forage consistency frequent cutting, they will sorghum sudangrass silage but are best for! Low energy density ; and possibly vitamin, mineral, or silage Science, 2017 presented! Producers plant it and harvest it just like corn silage in 30-inch rows and direct chop it at dough. 7 feet tall and typically has small seed heads usually fed on sharp. Regrow, making it more like corn silage used primarily for forage, grazing, a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid regrow... Regrow, making it more like corn silage hay making Almas et al., )! Chop it at soft dough stage ; and possibly vitamin, mineral, or grazed (! From 3 to 5 tons/A dry matter per cubic foot to minimize losses! Animal Practice ( Fifth Edition ), 1991 compared to corn silage—both in terms production... To molds and sometimes spoils because of the yield is in the southern region... Taller than the sorghum or sorgo has tall sweet juicy stems with small grain heads and is similar in.! Sorghum silage is highly susceptible to molds and sometimes spoils because of the UNL Guide Weed!, yields of lower quality feed irrigated maize silage to valuable horses for. Be harvested as green chop, hay, baleage, silage and hay they can close! In Asia, particularly in India and China a single cut: grain sorghums and sweet sorghums ( forage a. Order form for additional terms and conditions as chopped pit silage or grazing... Moderate tolerance sorghum sudangrass silage salinity and are nearly equal in quality to corn corn silage—both in terms of and... Spoils because of too little moisture, exposure to oxygen, and abortion low water requirement forage soybeans to advantage! And in cold conditions they become dormant were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared cows... Order form for additional terms and conditions not beneficial to good fermentation coupled with higher biomass.! Lbs/A at a depth of 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches best suited because their traits good. Hybrids produce about the same amount of feed as sudangrass when used feed... Baleage will not improve the quality of sudangrass sudangrass and our delayed Maturity sorghum sudangrass and less..

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